Alfred Nobel

Incredibly rare and sought-after document by Nobel concerning dynamite!

A handwritten and twice-signed document by Alfred Nobel, dated Paris, January 24, 1873, in which Nobel gives permission for the production of dynamite in Italy. The agreement entails that a company ("anonymous Italian society for the production of dynamite") is to be founded, in which Alfred Nobel will receive 1,200 shareholdings, while the other shall receive 340 shareholdings. Nobel concludes by clarifying that this agreement does not, in any way, restrict the Nobel patent for the dynamite.

The letter in full:
To confirm, as is necessary, the commitment toward you that I entered following the action of April 29, 1872 concerning the formation of an anonymous Italian society for the production of dynamite, for which you guaranteed the subscription of social capital, which project was followed by a new act signed this day, I hereby declare formally that I am obliged to hand over to you, Gentlemen, the following.

1. to MM. Bandmann and Carstens dividend shares … 152
2. to M. Eug. Pereire … 24
3. to M. Gunzbourg … 24
4. to M. I. Pereire … 24
5. to G. Halphen … 18
6. to M. Barbe … 30
7. the anonymous Italian Society for dynamite powder to distribute it in Italy, according to the instructions of MM. Barbe and Carstens … 50
8. to M. A Brüll for his care in establishing the Society … 18
Total: 340

It remains understood, Gentlemen, that these 340 dividend shares will be paid out to you on the day the anonymous Italian Society will be able to deliver them, against the 1200 that are designed for me and my contribution.

Once the Society delivers these shares to the carrier, you will be able to withdraw the 340 shares in question with a temporary receipt, replaced by a release form signed by me which obliges me to hand you the released shares on the day the Society delivers them to me.

I authorize you, Gentlemen, to make use of this document in any way you deem useful to the protection of your rights of the 340 shares regarding our mutual commitment which I consequently honor by giving you all possible rights to the withdrawal of said 340 shares from the Italian Society, which I, in no case, can withdraw without your contentment and satisfaction.

Please accept my sincere wishes.

Good for three hundred and forty dividend shares of the anonymous Italian Dynamite Society against the twelve hundred shares assigned to me by the Society’s action on January 24, 1873.
Alfred Nobel

P.S. It is understood that my signature under this letter and on the action of the Society today in no way grants the right to Mr. Carstens and Mr. Boardmann to file for a patent of an invention that was mine, whether on their own or via a proxy.
A Nobel”

Letters and documents by Nobel are very rare, especially when the word "dynamite" is mentioned. This document does not only mention ”dynamite”, but it's strictly about dynamite, which frankly I haven’t seen before. It might very well be the most important Nobel document ever offered for sale.

Size: Approximately 8 x 11 inches / 20 x 28 cm each, unframed.

Condition: Good condition; two very light original folds

Provenance: Private collection, England. Letter of authenticity from Universal Archives/John Reznikoff.Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.

Price upon request.

Nobel Prize Medal

Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood’s Nobel Prize Medal!

A Nobel Prize medal awarded to Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood in 1956 by The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences for Chemistry. Hinshelwood was jointly-awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Nikolay Semenov for their researches into the mechanism of chemical reactions, specifically in the reaction between hydrogen and oxygen.

Only a few Nobel Prize medals have been offered for sale since 1901, making this piece incredibly rare and highly sought-after.

Condition: Very good condition; some minor scratches.

Provenance: Letter of provenance from Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood’s estate. Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.


Nobel Prize Medal

One-of-a-kind honorary Nobel Prize Medal in silver!

A Nobel Prize medal awarded to Jacob Wallenberg in 1967 by The Nobel Foundation. Wallenberg was awarded an honorary Nobel medal, note that he wasn’t a Nobel laureate, but a very prominent businessman that worked with Nobel.This Nobel Medal is one-of-a-kind and extremely rare and is to be regarded as an honorary prize medal.

The medal, the front of which is identical to the prize medals, has the following text on the back: "Institutum Nobelianum Crato Amino; Peritia Prudentia Providentia; Jacob Wallenberg; 1951-". The medal's box carries the text "Jacob Wallenberg; 27/9 1967; From the Nobel Foundation". This is most likely the very first honorary medal of this kind ever offered for sale.

Condition: Very good condition; some minor scratches.

Provenance: Private collection, Sweden.Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.


Nobel Prize Medal

Rare 1902 Nobel Prize Medal in bronze!

A Nobel Prize medal from 1902 made out of bronze. It's noteworthy that this is not a prize medal that has been awarded to a Nobel laureate, but it was produced in 1902 in an extremely limited edition. Both the front and back are identical to the prize medals that are awarded in the categories Physics and Chemistry.

Condition: Very good condition; some minor scratches.

Provenance: Private collection, Sweden. Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.


Nobel Prize Medal

Unique Nobel Prize medal in 23k!

A Nobel Prize medal from ca. 1980 plated with 23k gold. It's noteworthy that this is not a prize medal that has been awarded to a Nobel laureate, but it was produced in ca. 1980 in an extremely limited edition. Both the front and back are identical to the prize medals that are awarded in the categories Physics and Chemistry.

Condition: Very good condition.

Provenance: Private collection, Sweden.Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.

Price upon request.

Albert Einstein

In his very first(!) published work as a Nobel Prize recipient, Einstein incorporates a variant of his General Theory of Relativity.

Handwritten manuscript in German (signed "Einstein’schen" in the title). Headed (translated), "Comment on E. Trefftz's Paper: 'The Static Gravitational Field of Two Mass Points in Einstein's Theory," the paper was presented on November 23, 1922, to the Berlin-based Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, who published the work on December 21, 1922. The present manuscript was probably a draft used for typesetting, as it contains several handwritten editor's annotations in pencil which were executed in the published version. This was Einstein's very first paper, published after he received the Nobel Prize on December 10, 1922.

CLICK HERE for a full transcript of the manuscript (in German).

CLICK HERE for a full translation of the manuscript (in English).

In total, the following equations are written in the manuscript.

1. Rik –1/4gikR = 0
1a. (Rik – 1/2gikR) – λgik = 0

2. ds2 = f4(x)dt2 – [dx2 + f2(x)(dθ2 + sin2θdφ2)]
3. x = ∫ dw / √1 + A/w + Bw2
f2 = w2
f4 =C2 (1+A/w+Bw2)
4. (2+3) ds2 =(1+A/w+Bw2)dt2 –dw2/1+A/w+Bw2 – w2 (dθ2 + sin2θdφ2)
5. dw/dx=√1+A/w+Bw2 =0

The manuscript is Einstein's criticism of a paper in which the author, Erich Trefftz, claimed to have found a static solution of the equations of general relativity for two point masses; Einstein points out that such a conclusion is based on an error. Featuring several mathematical equations—including a modified form of his General Theory of Relativity—Einstein's manuscript reads, in part (translated): "The author grounds his analysis on the field equations in vacuo, Rik –1/4gikR = 0 (1), which are equivalent to the equations: (Rik – 1/2gikR) – λgik = 0 (1a), as is easily proved by reducing (1a). The author believes he has found a solution that has a spherical connection in space and except for the two masses no singularity, also not containing any other masses.

In view of the importance of the problem to the cosmological issue, i.e., the question of the large-scale geometrical structure of the universe, I was interested to know whether the equations really did yield as a physical possibility a static universe whose material mass was concentrated in just two celestial bodies. It became apparent, however, that Trefftz's solution does not permit this physical interpretation at all. This will be demonstrated in the following.

Mr. Trefftz sets out the assumption for the (four-dimensional) line element: ds2 = f4(x)dt2 – [dx2 + f2(x)(dθ2 + sin2θdφ2)] (2). This assumption corresponds to a space of spherical symmetry around the origin. The special case f4 = const; f2 = x2 would correspond to the Euclidean-Galilean isotropic and homogeneous space." Einstein goes on to identify that, according to a general solution proposed by Trefftz, "for negative A and vanishing B this yields the well-known Schwarzschild solution for the field of a material point." The manuscript breaks off mid-sentence at the end of the second page, and is missing three-and-a-half concluding lines found in the published version; copies of the paper as published, in both German and English, are included.

Most significantly, this manuscript contains a handwritten version of Einstein's General Theory of Relativity, incorporating a cosmological constant: “(Rik – 1/2gikR) – λgik = 0”.
In 1915, Einstein made his groundbreaking achievement with the introduction of the General Theory of Relativity. The heart of the theory, where the generally covariant field equations of gravitation, is written in the form: ‘Rik – 1/2gikR = - kTik.' In 1917, Einstein applied his equations to the problem of explaining the structure of the cosmos on a large scale and found that he would need to modify his equations by adding another term, containing a constant, which he denoted λ and called 'cosmological.' This cosmological constant relied on a static universe; upon the later discovery that the universe was expanding, Einstein reportedly called this the greatest blunder of his career.

With the famous cosmological constant and for the special case of a vacuum, where the energy-momentum tensor 'Tik' vanishes, Einstein’s gravitational field equations read "( Rik – 1/2gikR) – λgik = 0," which is the equation cited as "(1a)" in the present manuscript. By a mathematical operation called contraction, equation "(1a)" implies that λ = - R/4 in the case of a vacuum. Substituting this expression for λ into equation (1a), one obtains the equation "Rik – 1⁄4 gikR = 0," which is given as equation "(1)" in the present manuscript. It was advanced by Einstein in a 1919 paper as a candidate for a slightly modified field equation to account both for the structure of matter and for cosmological structure.

The manuscript was presented on November 23 1922 by Albert Einstein and was later published on December 21 1922 by the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences (German: Königlich-Preußische Akademie der Wissenschaften). The Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences was an academic academy established in Berlin on 11 July 1700; Albert Einstein became a member of the academy in 1914.

Max von Laue, German physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914 for his discovery of the diffraction of X-rays by crystals, became a corresponding member of the Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences in 1919. Two years later von Laue became a regular member of the academy. In other words, von Laue was highly involved in the academy. It is truly remarkable that this manuscript has been owned by two Nobel Prize winners in Physics (von Laue in 1914 and Einstein in 1921).

There are many attributes that make this manuscript truly high-end and remarkable. The very important scientific content and the enormously significant date within the context of Einstein's career make this item stands out from all other incredible Einstein manuscripts. Arguably, this is the most important Einstein paper in existence.

Size: Approximately 8.1 x 10.2 inches / 20,5 x 26 cm each, unframed.

Condition: Fine condition; folded, both horizontal and vertical, with some separation along the folds of the horizontal fold on the first page; impression of a paperclip mark in the upper left corner of both pages; overall scattered staining.

Provenance: Albert Einstein, 1922; Max von Laue, Royal Prussian Academy of Sciences, 1922–1948; Alexander Dingas, 1948–1964; G. Schrupf, 1964–1980s; Private collection, Germany, 1980s–2016. Letter of provenance by Dingas, dated April 12, 1964, in part (translated): "Einstein – Manuscript, given by Mr. v. Laue, 1948 in Gottingen, Alex. Dingas. For Miss G. Schrupf. To be used in any way, possibly even for sale". Letter of authenticity from Universal Archives/John Reznikoff. Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.


Albert Einstein

Remarkable letter incorporating his thoughts about Nazi Germany…

Handwritten and signed letter by Albert Einstein with extraordinary content regarding the German's continued "attachment to Nazi-dom", the destructive nature of humanity, and American culture post the Second World War, including its "imperialism and military psychology" as well its "intellectual theft". The letter, dated January 22 1945, is written to Einstein’s friend Otto Juliusburger, who was a Jewish-German psychiatrist that emigrated to the United States during World War II.

The letter in full: "Dear Friend, I thank you today for your kind wishes and send you mine, somewhat shamefully late, but still, you can say, at the start of the year. At one point I had a correspondence with [philosopher and scientist Josef] Popper-Lynkeus that in a way I feel ashamed of. In it, I criticized his concept of a 'duty to provide subsistence' as being impractical, and I am afraid that criticism was not good. I did agree with him that protecting the individual from material want was an undeniable and important duty of society, but believed that interference of such magnitude into the freedom of the individual was not desirable and not warranted for the attainment of the goal. In doing so, I totally failed to recognize the high instructive value of such a development, which would, after all, be the exact opposite of society's requiring military duty, even concerning the instructive impact. You propose classes in social-ethics instruction. No doubt, that would be good, but talk remains talk and tends to ossify. Action has greater impact.

I can well imagine how excited you are that your research results in pernicious anemia and somatic treatment of psychological illnesses have been accepted. You did not mention the people here. Small surprise there since intellectual theft is one of the hallowed traditions of this blessed country, which is well-known to the initiated. It adorns the thief while also helping overcome the inferiority complex that still operates under the surface.

The Germans have not succeeded in concealing their attachment to Nazi-dom. I hope that will cause others to destroy the German danger more radically than after the last war - so that jealousy of the victors will not result again in rivalry for the German confederation. Mankind in the mass is a fatal beast about which you can never tell when and where it will destructively pounce. Victory has not been good for those here, as imperialism and military psychology have taken hold. And yet one cannot be grateful enough for that victory.

Enjoy your days compiling your works. To you and your dear wife I wish happy and harmonious days. Warmly, A. Einstein".

An additional postscript written vertically in the left margin reads: ""Have you heard that our dear [Gustav Peter] Bucky narrowly escaped death thanks to surgery performed at the last minute? Apparently it was a case of medically adventurous proportions (obstruction of stomach and intestines caused by an interior hernia). [Rudolph] Nissen's surgery must have been the accomplishment of a genius."

This is truly a remarkable letter by Einstein in which he explains his thoughts about Nazi Germany. It’s seldom to see such a personal letter by the great scientist.

Size: Approximately 8.5 x 11 in. / 22 x 28 cm, unframed.

Condition: Very good condition; two horizontal folds.

Provenance: Private collection, USA. Letter of authenticity from Universal Archives/John Reznikoff. Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.


Albert Einstein

Einstein explains The Special Theory of Relativity to a physics teacher!

A set of two documents; the first is dated September 4 1953 on Princeton's Institute for Advanced Study letterhead, in which Einstein writes to physics teacher Arthur L. Converse, in part: "There is no difficulty to explain your present experiment on the basis of the usual electrostatic theory. One has only to assume that there is a difference of potential between the body of the earth and higher layers of the atmosphere, the earth being negative relatively to those higher layers ... [Einstein then draws the Earth and the atmosphere, referring to it for clarification] The electric potential p rises linearly with the distance h from the surface of the earth ... For all your experiments the following question is relevant: How big is the electric charge produced on a conductor which is situated in a certain height h, this body being connected with the earth".

The second document is a two-page questionnaire containing questions written by Converse. In one answer, Einstein seems to disagree with the question, providing both a diagram and mathematical equation and then a question mark to try to aid understanding. He later writes "not clear" to one answer along with a question mark and additional diagram with the notation "charge of electroscope increased proportional to h".

The original mailing envelope, postmarked September 7 1953 from Princeton, is accompanied with the two documents.

This is an extremely rare set of documents that really shows Einstein's generosity, with the highlight of the Special Theory of Relativity content. Arguably one of the most unique Einstein documents ever to be offered for sale.

Size: Approximately 8.5 x 11 in. / 22 x 28 cm each, unframed.

Condition: Good condition; two horizontal folds on both documents: handling creases on the questionnaire document.

Provenance: Arthur Converse; Private collection, USA. Letter of provenance from previous owner. Letter of authenticity from Alexander Bitar History.